Patriarchal values and expectations pervade all aspects of our society — from our laws to our culture. But while these values are rooted in patriarchy, women too play an integral role in the preservation of misogynistic cultural norms and social practices. These cultural conceptions of womanhood are so deeply ingrained that they dictate performances of femininity, even behind closed doors. The following are ways in which I have seen myself and other women commonly internalize misogyny:. In a culture where dating apps have made casual sex the norm, there is an increasingly apparent expectation of informality and impermanence regarding romantic relationships. This is particularly apparent on college campuses where partners are considered dispensable, and expectations of relationships are rarely serious.
Psychology can help people one person at a time, but it also holds the promise of changing society at a mass scale, through campaigns to change attitudes and behaviour. One such endeavour is the development of programmes to reduce the rates of sexual assault of women on university campuses. But in a literature review in Aggression and Violent Behavior , researchers from the University of California make the case that such programmes may not just be ineffective, but counterproductive. In a ranking of genuinely important YouTube videos to have gone viral, this one see above from places high: it shows over instances of harassment endured by a woman wearing a hidden camera as she walked around New York City for ten hours, including comments, stares, winks and whistles. The video was posted in by the domestic violence activist group Hollaback! As individual testimony, it was powerful. But, critics could argue, it was just one woman, on just one day.
Compared with anti-woman sexism or misandry hatred or fear of, or strong prejudice against men , misogyny is usually regarded as directed against women by some men, though women can also hold misogynistic views. Reference Terms. Misogyny is hatred or strong prejudice against women. Related Stories.
Though the communities themselves tend to be relatively small—even big ones have only about , members—their impact is felt across the web. They incubate predator trolls, they foment harassment campaigns, and, as the Toronto van attack proved, they can inspire real-world violence. Still, neither scientists nor platform policy makers know much about them—how they arrive at their beliefs or how they spread them. Misogyny online is more felt than understood.